NCAI Urges Senate to Reauthorize CHIP and SDPI

NCAI Urges Senate Leadership to Reauthorize CHIP and SDPI

On December 11th, 2017, NCAI sent the attached letters to Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell (R-KY) and Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer (D-NY) urging them to promptly reauthorize the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) and the Special Diabetes Program for Indians (SDPI).

Both programs were reauthorized until September 30th, 2017 by the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act (MACRA, Public Law 114-10). While CHIP is currently expired, SDPI was extended until December 31st, 2017 through the Disaster Tax Relief and Airport and Airway Extension Act. CHIP and SDPI have had positive impacts in Indian Country and failure to reauthorize these programs jeopardizes the great strides that have been made in ensuring American Indian and Alaska Native children are insured and decreasing the rate of diabetes and diabetes-related complications in Indian Country.

NCAI Contact Info: Josh Pitre, Senior Policy Analyst, jpitre@ncai.org

Read the CHIP Letter>

http://files.constantcontact.com/c2394f27001/9abc19c4-86e0-4a08-b7df-32da072a56f8.pdf 
Read the SDPI Letter:

http://files.constantcontact.com/c2394f27001/d88ef44c-8cdb-45bf-92a1-892a9cc73df8.pdf 

NCAI.org

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NCAI Tax Reform Update

NCAI Tax Reform Update

December 8, 2017

Tax Reform Update

On December 2, the Senate passed its tax reform bill, which means the House and Senate must now resolve the differences between their bills. The Senate bill does not include any tribal provisions while the House bill has one tribal provision that would treat the loan repayment benefits offered by the Indian Health Service the same as loan repayment benefits offered by other public sector health services providers for purposes of income taxes.

Last week, both the House and Senate voted to go to conference and named their conferees. Once the conferees negotiate the final package, each chamber will hold a vote. We expect the House vote to occur early next week, and the Senate vote to occur after the House vote and before the end of the week.

On December 6, NCAI and NAFOA sent a joint letter to the conferees expressing the need to include tribes. Additionally, because changes made during conference must be related to the bills being conferenced, NCAI prepared a memorandum analyzing how tribal tax priorities are related to provisions currently being considered in the House and Senate bills.

Tribes, NCAI, and other organizations continue to urge Congress to include Indian Country in the final tax reform package.

A chart of House and Senate conferees is available: here

The NCAI-NAFOA letter is available: here

The NCAI memorandum is available: here
NCAI Contact Info: Jacob Schellinger, Staff Attorney & Legislative Counsel, jschellinger@ncai.org

http://www.ncai.org/ 

http://files.constantcontact.com/c2394f27001/eedc8442-a862-4cf8-9b00-3cf897dad766.pdf

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The Shawnees and the War for America by Colin Calloway (Author)

With the courage and resilience embodied by their legendary leader Tecumseh, the Shawnees waged a war of territorial and cultural resistance for half a century. Noted historian Colin G. Calloway details the political and legal battles and the bloody fighting on both sides for possession of the Shawnees? land, while imbuing historical figures such as warrior chief Tecumseh, Daniel Boone, and Andrew Jackson with all their ambiguity and complexity. More than defending their territory, the Shawnees went to war to preserve a way of life and their own deeply held vision of what their nation should be.

Editorial Reviews

From Publishers Weekly

In placing the Shawnee center stage, Calloway (editor of the Penguin Library of American Indian History and Dartmouth Native American studies chair) achieves a remarkably accessible distillation of Shawnee history. He guides the reader through a thicket of wandering as the Shawnees’ forced movement scatters them from the Ohio Valley during the late 17th century, before they reassembled in Ohio in the mid-18th century, and then gathered again in Oklahoma in the 19th century. The Shawnees stand out as hard liners when it came to defending Native lands, Native rights, and Native ways of life, says Calloway. Indeed, their history is a cycle of killings and revenge killings, battles and massacres by both sides, swallowing up those who made accommodations (Black Hoof and the model farm at Wapakoneta) as well as those who resisted (the legendary brothers, Tenskwatawa and Tecumseh). Daniel Boone, who played a key role in destroying the Shawnees’ world in Kentucky, is part of that history, as is General Amherst, who advocated using germ warfare. The treks and treaties are not always easy reading, but Calloway’s text is enlivened with judicious first-person excerpts and his passion for his subject. His heart is with the Shawnees, but he writes with balance of the fateful meeting of the cultures on the frontiers. (July)

Copyright © Reed Business Information, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. –This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

  • Paperback: 256 pages
  • Publisher: Penguin Books; Reprint edition (June 24, 2008)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 0143113917
  • ISBN-13: 978-0143113911

Available on Amazon.com 

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2010 U.S. Census Report American Indian Populations

2010 U.S. Census Report American Indian Populations

UNITED STATES TRIBES & PEOPLE

There are 562 federally recognized tribes in the United States. Of these 229 are located in Alaska and the remainder are spread across 33 other states.

The 2010 U.S. Census reported 2.9 million people with pure American Indian and Alaska Native ancestry. Native Americans of mixed race totaled 2.3 million.

The combined U.S. population in 2010 was 5.2 million American Indians and Alaska Natives. The 5 states with the most population are these:

California

Oklahoma

Arizona

New Mexico

Texas

362,801

321,687

296,529

193,222

170,972

For all state populations and more census information, visit the census report titled “The American Indian and Alaska Native Population: 2010”.

Visit the Complete Census Report

https://www.census.gov/2010census/

Look up Tribes by State:

https://500nations.com/500_Tribes.asp

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The Pennsylvania Magazine Of History and Biography: Transculturation

The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography published an interesting article/research on Transculturation of the Anglo-American and American Indian that went in both directions.  The influence and adoption of food, cooking, farming, and building.  The below is an excerpt, the full publication can be read by following the link below.

The Pennsylvania Magazine

Of History and Biography

Pennsylvania Captives among the Ohio Indians,  1755- 1765

THE    PENNSYLVANIA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY Vol. CXXV, No. 3 July 2001

…Pennsylvania captives were fully integrated into Indian society. Most captives were adopted to replace deceased family members and even acquired their social status. Peter Lewney, for instance, was adopted by a Detroit headman to replace a deceased relative and was soon fully integrated into his new family. He was regarded as a respected warrior and encouraged to attend important diplomatic meetings with the French. Several captives even rose to positions of influence in their new homes. George Brown became “one of the chief Men among the Shawnese” and Joshua Renick a Miami headman. Hugh Gibson was adopted to replace a brother of Pisquetomen, an influential Delaware headman.

Their central place in the families of the Ohio Indians meant that they were able to acculturate their families into Anglo-American practices. Although captivity accounts arc often very vague on the routine of the captives’ daily lives, it appears that on a day-to-day level they repeatedly influenced the lives of their captors.35Captives were used in a wide variety of tasks, particularly around the home where they were in close contact with their captors. Mary Jemison reported that she was “employed in nursing the children, and doing light work about the house.”36  Marie Le  Roy and Barbara Leininger were similarly employed planting crops and washing and cooking. Captives also served as teachers of English to their new families. Indeed, by the 1760s many Ohio Indians appear to have mastered the English language with a reasonable degree of fluency. On occasion, the Ohio Indians also took advantage of their ability to read. Robert Rutherford, for instance, a British soldier captured during Pontiac’s War, was ordered to translate British documents for his captors. Taken individually these instances may not amount to a dramatic cultural transformation of the lives of Ohio in clans. However, when compounded hundreds of times, with captives present in the majority of  Ohio villages, and when added to the flow of captured household goods, captives served to introduce European customs into the Ohio Valley. In Mary Jemi son’s case, for instance, this might have amounted to no more than showing her adopted family how to use a fork seized from a colonist’s plantation.

The skills of captives were important because the war brought so many new items to the Ohio Valley. Raiders bought back with them household utensils, clothing, agricultural implements, almost anything that they, or the horses they seized, could any. Captives played an important role in showing the Ohio villagers bow to use their new booty. Before the war, domesticated cattle had been very uncommon in the Ohio Valley. The Moravian missionary David Zeisberger commented that in general the Ohio Indians “do not care to keep c-.itd e, for in that case they must remain at home to look after it [sic] and are prevented from going into the forest. 38 However, captives such as Susanna Johnson, captured by the Iroquois, who reported how she  spent  much  of  her  time  tending  cows,  may  have  played  an important role in informing the Ohio Indians about the core of such animals.39 By the early l 760s James Kenny was able to report how one Delaware headman living on the Ohio River had even constructed “several Stables & Cow houses under one Root” and had  become  widely  known  for his skill in making butter. By the late 1760s Anglo-American travelers to the region where commenting on the numerous cattle and pigs that roamed  the Ohio woods, and even on the Ohio Indians’ skill in producing butter and cheese.”°

Captives may also have facilitated an even more fundamental cultural transformation. James Kenny related how in 1761 he came across a village of houses with “Stone Chimneys &several frame Buildings,_,,. Captives like Hugh Gibson, who was employed in producing clapboards, may have played a crucial role in teaching the Ohio Indians these new construction skills. By the late eighteenth century, many Ohio Indians had abandoned traditional building techniques and were living in clapboard houses of European style. Thomas Cape told how some Shawnees even sowed the wheat that they had obtained during raids on the backcountry and attempted to produce their own wheat and bread.42 By the 1760s David Zeisberger reported that the Ohio Indians had even begun to forge their own iron and make hatchets and axes. The adoption of European housing, forging, and agricultural techniques represents a fundamental acculturation of the Ohio Indians. Indeed, Alden T. Vaughan and Daniel K. Richter have argued that” adoption of English-style housing seems to have been one of the last steps in transculturation.”43

https://journals.psu.edu/pmhb/article/viewFile/45458/45179

THE PENNSYLVANIA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY Vol. CXXV, No. 3 July 2001

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One Hundred Stories from Our Own History by Lawton B. Evans (Milton Bradley Co., Springfield Mass. 1920.)

The Native American Story of Tecumseh
America First—One Hundred Stories from Our Own History

by Lawton B. Evans

The Story of Tecumseh
Tecumseh was probably the greatest American Indian that race has ever produced. He was the most eloquent orator ever known among the Indian tribes. When he spoke, his voice was deep and full, like an organ, his face shone with emotion, and his words were remarkable for their poetic beauty.

His father was a Shawnee warrior, and was killed in battle with white settlers, when Tecumseh was a mere child. This impressed him with a great resolve to keep the white men out of the Indian lands, and to fight them whenever he could.

He possessed a sensitive dignity, as is shown by the following incident. Upon one occasion, when he came with his warriors to hold a conference with General Harrison, he looked around, after he had finished his address, to find a seat. Seeing that none had been reserved for him, he appeared offended.

A white man, seated near General Harrison, arose and offered him his seat, saying, “Your father wishes you to sit by his side.”

“The sun is my father, and the earth is my mother. I shall sit in his light and rest on her bosom,” said Tecumseh. Whereupon, he sat down on the ground, in the full light of the sun.

Tecumseh was a noble soldier, and never allowed any prisoners to be tortured. He promised General Harrison that, in case of war between the Indians and the whites, he would not permit his warriors to massacre women and children. He faithfully kept his word. At the siege of Fort Meigs, the Indians began murdering their prisoners. Tecumseh ran in, and, brandishing his tomahawk, bade them stop at once. Turning to General Procter, who stood looking on, he cried out,

“Why do you permit this outrage? Why did you not stop those men, and save those wretched prisoners?”

Procter replied that the Indians could not be restrained, and that he could not prevent the massacre.

Tecumseh was furious at this, and said, “Begone, you coward. You are not fit to command men. Go and put on a petticoat, and sit with the women, where you belong.”

Procter was not a brave soldier, and, at one time, burned his stores and abandoned his fort, even though he had a thousand men and three thousand Indian allies. Tecumseh was so disgusted with his cowardice, that he compared him to a fat dog, who barked and held his tail high, when there was no danger, but who howled, and dropped his tail between his legs and ran, whenever any one attacked him.

When Tecumseh went to Alabama to stir up the Creek Indians against the whites of that section, he found them unwilling to rise against their neighbors and friends. All his eloquence failed to move them, and, to all his appeals and threats, they merely shook their heads. Finally, in a burst of anger, he cried out,

“Your blood is white, and no longer runs red like the rising sun. You do not fight because you are cowards and are afraid to fight. You do not believe the Great Spirit has sent me, but you shall believe it. I am going back to Detroit. It will take me many days, but when I reach there, I shall tell the Great Spirit, and I shall stamp my foot on the ground, and shake every house in your village.”

So saying, he left, and journeyed northward. The Indians counted the days until he should reach home. Strangely enough, about the time he was due there, an earthquake shook the village. The Indians rushed wildly for their dwellings, crying out,

“Tecumseh has arrived in Detroit; he has told the Great Spirit; we feel the stamping of his foot!”

The last battle in which this warrior was engaged was that of the Thames. The Americans had been pursuing the British and their Indian allies for some time, until Tecumseh was tired of the disgraceful state of affairs, and told the British officer, Procter, that he would retreat no longer. “We will stand here and give battle,” said he. “I and my warriors were not made for running away from our enemies.”

The result was the battle of the Thames. At the opening of the conflict, Tecumseh turned to his friends, and said,

“Brother warriors, I shall never come out of this battle alive. I go there to die, but I go. My body will remain on the field, I know it will be so.

He unbuckled his sword, and handed it to one of his Chiefs, and said, “When my son becomes a great warrior, give him this sword, and tell him his father died like a brave Chief and a hero. Tell my people I died for their rights.” With that, he also took off the British uniform, which he had been wearing, and put on his own savage dress and war-paint.

The battle raged for a while with fury. Procter at last fled through the swamps and wilderness, escaping with a few followers. Tecumseh, however, brandishing his club, rushed upon his pursuers, and fell, pierced with many wounds.

https://www.barnesandnoble.com/w/america-first-lawton-b-evans/1115181691

https://www.warpaths2peacepipes.com/native-american-stories/tecumseh.htm

Reading List for learning American History, from youth to adult:

http://wildflowerramblings.com/american-history/living-books-american-history-classical-conversations-cycle-3/

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What are some traditional Shawnee Indian food recipes?

What are some traditional Shawnee Indian food recipes?

Shawnee cakes and three sisters soup are some traditional recipes from the Shawnee Indians. Variations of these recipes were used by Native American tribes throughout North America and were also adapted by European settlers.

The exact origin of Shawnee cakes is unknown, but some historians believe the dish originally belonged to the Shawnee people. These simple fried corn cakes, also known as Johnny cakes and hoe cakes, are still widely consumed, particularly in the southeast and New England. One cup of cornmeal, 1 1/2 cups of boiling water and a pinch of salt are the basic ingredients, although some modern recipes substitute 1/2 cup of milk. Fry spoonfuls of the batter in a heavy skillet until crisp and golden brown on both sides.

Like many Native American tribes, the Shawnees depended on farming as an essential part of their food supply. Corn, beans and squash, or the three sisters, were a significant part of their cuisine and their culture. Combine 2 cups of canned hominy, 2 cups of trimmed green beans, 2 cups of cubed butternut squash and 1 1/2 cups of diced potatoes in a large stock pot with 5 cups of water and 1 1/2 tablespoons of chicken bouillon granules. Bring the mixture to a boil, and then simmer on low heat for 10 minutes. Stir 2 tablespoons of melted butter into 2 tablespoons of flour, add it to the soup, and cook over medium heat for five minutes.

Sources:

whatscookingamerica.net

allrecipes.com

nativetech.org

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Shawnee Traditions By C.C. Trowbridge

Shownese Traditions. C. C. TROWBRIDGE, Edited by VERNON KLNIETZ and ERMINIE W. VOEGELIN. (Occasional Contributions from the Museum of Anthropology of the University of Michigan, No. 9, 71 pp. Ann Arbor, 1939.)

Excerpt:

This volume is the second to be published of the early nineteenth century manuscripts of C. C. Trowbridge on the ethnology of the tribes of the old Northwest.’ Trowbridge as the secretary of Governor Lewis Cass, for whom he collected information on the manners and traditions of the natives of the Great Lakes and the Ohio Valley. The accounts of the Shawnee are two in number, the originals having only recently been found in the possession of Trowbridge’s Grandson, Mr Sydney Trowbridge Miller of Detroit. One account was taken down in July 1824 at an interview near Detroit with the notable Shawnee, the Prophet; the other and shorter account being written in 1825 at the Shawnee Reservation at Wapakoneta, Ohio, from the mouth of the aged chief, Black Hoof.

The text is a faithful verbatim copy of the manuscript. This publication contains a wealth of very valuable ethnological information and much historical data of importance. It is excellently edited, here being an appropriate introduction by Dr Erminie Voegelin, and the book is adequately annotated with illuminating footnotes, marked for their ethnological and historical accuracy. The authoritative weight of the book is augmented by the fact the Shawnee informants were among the best obtainable. The Prophet wa? the brother of the famous Shawnee leader, Tecumseh, and himself a shaman with the sanction of supernatural revelations, and the pre-eminent champion and exponent of cultural conservatism among the tribes of the then Northwest. Both belonged to the KiSpoko division of the Shawnee. The other informant, Black Hoof, then in his nineties, was a prominent Shawnee warrior and chief, probably belonging to the Oawikila division. Brief mention should be made of some of the more salient features of the volume. Elderly matrons or “peace women” could appeal to the war chiefs to stop warfare and prevent the unnecessary effusion of blood (p. 12), a trait also found in more or less modified form among the Delaware, Iroquois and Penobscot. There is a most impressive complete list of the thirty-four patrilineal sibs or gentes of the Shawnee tribe (pp. 16-17), many of which were at that time extinct (1824). Nine of these are to be found in Lewis H. Morgan’s list of Shawnee gentes collected in 1860 in Kansas. The Shawnee can be viewed as an enclave of Central Algonkian patrilineal descent persisting in an area dominated by mother-right in the form of the southern and eastern tribes among whom they wandered and lived so long. Some specific functions of the gentes are mentioned. The war chief was always a member of the Panther gens; and warriors of the Panther gens always followed at the rear of the party in returning from the warpath, while warriors of the Wolf gens led at the head (p. 19). The guardians of the sacred fire were two men, one of the Panther gens and one of the Turtle gens, one belonging to the CalakaaOa (Chillicothe) and one to the Mekore division (p.56). The sacred fire complex is a Characteristic Southeastern cultural trait which the Shawnee probably adopted during their long period of southern residence. Pyrolatry reached its fullest development among the Creek, Natchez and Taensa, but undoubtedly extended to other groups in more or less attenuated form. A Shawnee version of the primeval deluge or Earth-diver tale is given (p. 60) in which the crawfish is the animal agent, which is in agreement with the Southeastern and Gulf tribes (Creek, Yuchi, etc.), in contrast to most Central Algonkian tribes who have the muskrat as the animal helper. Of considerable interest is the cannibal or anthropophagic society of the Shawnee which is found also among the Miami and Kickapoo. Male and female members of the society were admitted by hereditary descent, and all belonged to the Pekowi (Piqua) division of Shawnee. The heads of the society were four women who claimed all the prisoners of war they could seize, the unfortunates subsequently being burned alive and eaten by the society (pp. 53-4, p. 64). The Shawnee make offerings of tobacco to their grandfathers, the snakes, upon their appearance every spring (pp. 42,48) in contradistinction to the practice of other Algonkian tribes. The Penobscot, Delaware, Sauk and Fox, all make offerings to their grandfathers, the Thunderers, when a storm approaches by casting tobacco in the fire, the Thunderers being the traditional enemies of all serpents and water monsters.

However, the Fox are on record for making offerings of tobacco to both serpents and Thunderers. It is a matter of note that in tabulating the cultural elements of a society, negative findings are equally important. Some specific denials for the Shawnee are found in the absence of wampum commemorative and record belts (p. 9), the lack of an organized medicine society such as occurred among the Ojibwa and Iroquois (p. 38), and the absence of transvestism (p.65), which is reported to have been present among the Delaware, Miami, and Potawatomi, and is known in the Southwest among the Navaho, Zuni, etc. No doubt this book will serve to fill many lacunae when the final detailed portrayal of Shawnee ethnology is presented by Drs Charles and Erminie Voegelin. Criticism is uncalled for, beyond stating that an index would have enhanced the usefulness of the volume.

MERION, PENNSYLVANIA FRANK T, SIEBERT, JR

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The Battle of Piqua

Battle of Piqua

George Rogers Clark

Throughout the American Revolution, Shawnee warriors conducted raids against American settlements in Kentucky. In the summer of 1780, George Rogers Clark, hoping to prevent further attacks, led 1,050 men against the Shawnee living in the Miami River Valley. Among Clark’s soldiers was frontiersman Daniel Boone. The Americans crossed the Ohio River at what is now modern-day Cincinnati. The army burned five Shawnee villages, including Old Chillicothe, along the Little Miami River. The Americans also burned Loramie’s Store, a British trading post, in what is now Shelby County, Ohio. The Shawnees generally fell back before Clark’s army, but a major encounter between the two sides occurred on August 8, 1780, near what is now Springfield, Ohio. Known as the Battle of Piqua, both sides suffered significant casualties. Clark’s attack, successful as far as it went, did not reduce the tensions between the Americans and the American Indians of the Ohio Country.

http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/w/Battle_of_Piqua

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Shawnee! The Ceremonialism of a Native American Tribe and its Cultural Background (Book)

Shawnee! The Ceremonialism of a Native American Tribe and its Cultural Background

Shawnee Book Cover

Piqua Shawnee Culture