Tecumseh (U.S. National Park Service)

Portrait of Shawnee chief Tecumseh
Portrait of Shawnee chief Tecumseh based on sketch by Benson John Lossing

Attributed to Owen Staples

Quick Facts

Significance:Shawnee leader
Place of Birth:Scioto River, Ohio
Date of Birth:March 9, 1768
Place of Death:Chatham-Kent, Canada
Date of Death:October 5, 1813

Tecumseh began life in the Shawnee village of Piqua, Ohio on March 9, 1768 as a great meteor flashed and burned its way across the heavens. This event accounts for his name: The Shooting Star, or Celestial Panther Lying in Wait. Tecumseh grew to be a famous warrior and dynamic orator. These skills, paired with his belief that the white man would never rest until all American Indians were dispossessed, made him a powerful and influential force.

Tecumseh conceived of an alliance of all remaining native people, from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico, from the prairies of the Midwest to the swamplands of Florida. All Indian people would set aside their ancestral rivalries and unite into a single movement to defend their culture, their homelands, and their very lives.

Providing spiritual impetus for Tecumseh’s movement was the teaching of his younger brother, known as Tenskwatawa, The Open Door, or The Prophet. In 1808, the Shawnee brothers established a new capital on the banks of the Wabash and Tippecanoe rivers, while Tecumseh traveled extensively in an effort to build his alliance. 

In the summer of 1811 Tecumseh traveled south to meet with the Creek, Chickasaw, and Choctaw people. The Shawnee leader had promised a sign of his power, and as he arrived in Alabama a huge comet appeared, brightening the skies and fading after his departure. Then, shortly after he left for Prophetstown, a series of violent earthquakes arched out of their epicenter in southeastern Missouri to destroy lives and property throughout the midwest and south. In the minds of the Creek and many others, Tecumseh had made good on his promises.
Meanwhile, growing tensions between the U.S. and Great Britain exploded into war. Tecumseh saw the War of 1812 as his final opportunity to construct an independent Indian nation. He journeyed to Canada in July of 1812 and forged an alliance with the British. General Isaac Brock placed Tecumseh in command of all Native American forces with the understanding that, should the British and Indians be victorious, the Old Northwest would comprise an independent Indian nation under British protection.

Despite a number of victories, this partnership turned fatal on October 5, 1813, at the Battle of the Thames River. Outnumbered three-to-one by General William Henry Harrison‘s army, the Indian and British forces were overwhelmed, without fortifications, and ultimately doomed.

Tecumseh’s vision of a unified American Indian homeland was never fully realized. Within 35 years of Tecumseh’s death at Moraviantown, many Native nations east of the Mississippi River were forcibly relocated. But today the great Tecumseh is still revered for his intelligence, leadership, and military skills, and he is honored throughout North America.

Read more about Tecumseh:

https://www.nps.gov/people/tecumseh.htm

www.piquashawnee.com

Piqua Shawnee

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Shawnee – Prehistory

Shawnee – Prehistory

Fort Ancient Monongahela cultures by Herb Roe

Fort Ancient Monongahela cultures by Herb Roe

 

Some scholars believe that the Shawnee are descendants of the people of the precontact Fort Ancient culture of the Ohio region, although this is not universally accepted.[5][6][7] Fort Ancient culture flourished from 1000 to 1650 CE among a people who predominantly inhabited lands along the Ohio River in areas of southern Ohio, northern Kentucky and western West Virginia. They were mound builders. Fort Ancient culture was once thought to have been an extension of the Mississippian culture. But, scholars now believe Fort Ancient culture developed independently and was descended from the Hopewell culture (100 BCE—500 CE), also a mound builder people.

Serpent Mound, Peebles, Ohio

Serpent Mound, Peebles, Ohio

 

Uncertainty surrounds the fate of the Fort Ancient people. Most likely their society, like the Mississippian culture to the south, was severely disrupted by waves of epidemics from new infectious diseases carried by the first Spanish explorers in the 16th century.[8] After 1525 at Madisonville, the type site, the village’s house sizes became smaller and fewer, with evidence showing the people changed from their previously “horticulture-centered, sedentary way of life”.[8][9]

There is a gap in the archaeological record between the most recent Fort Ancient sites and the oldest sites of the Shawnee. The latter were recorded by European (French and English) explorers as occupying this area at the time of encounter. Scholars generally accept that similarities in material culture, art, mythology, and Shawnee oral history linking them to the Fort Ancient peoples can be used to support the connection from Fort Ancient society and development as the historical Shawnee society.[10]

The Shawnee traditionally considered the Lenape (or Delaware) of the East Coast mid-Atlantic region, who were also Algonquian speaking, as their “grandfathers.” The Algonquian nations of present-day Canada regarded the US Shawnee as their southernmost branch. Along the East Coast, the Algonquian-speaking tribes were mostly located in coastal areas, from Quebec to the Carolinas.

Algonquian languages have words similar to the archaic shawano (now: shaawanwa) meaning “south”. However, the stem šawa- does not mean “south” in Shawnee, but “moderate, warm (of weather)”: See Voegelin “šawa (plus -ni, -te) MODERATE, WARM. Cp. šawani ‘it is moderating…”.[11] In one Shawnee tale, “Sawage” (šaawaki) is the deity of the south wind.[12] Curtin translates Sawage as ‘it thaws’, referring to the warm weather of the south. šaawaki is attested as the spirit of the South, or the South Wind, in this account, in one of Voegelin’s tales,[13] and in a song collected by Voegelin.[14]

Read more:

http://www.wikiwand.com/en/Shawnee#/Prehistory

Piqua Shawnee

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Tecumseh, Treaty of Fort Wayne and the Comet of 1811

Tecumseh, Treaty of Fort Wayne and the Comet of 1811

In September 1809 William Henry Harrison, then governor of the Indiana Territory, invited the Potawatomi, Lenape, Eel River people, and the Miami to a meeting in Fort Wayne, Indiana. In the negotiations, Harrison promised large subsidies and payments to the tribes if they would cede the lands he was asking for.[29] After two weeks of negotiating, the Potawatomi leaders convinced the Miami to accept the treaty as reciprocity, because the Potawatomi had earlier accepted treaties less advantageous to them at the request of the Miami. Finally the tribes signed the Treaty of Fort Wayne on September 30, 1809, thereby selling the United States over 3,000,000 acres (approximately 12,000 km²), chiefly along the Wabash River north of Vincennes, Indiana.[29]

Tecumseh was outraged by the Treaty of Fort Wayne, believing that American Indian land was owned in common by all tribes, an idea advocated in previous years by the Shawnee leader Blue Jacket and the Mohawk leader Joseph Brant.[30] In response, Tecumseh began to expand on the teachings of his brother, known as The Prophet, who called for the tribes to return to their ancestral ways. He began to associate the teachings with the idea of a pan-tribal alliance. Tecumseh traveled widely, urging warriors to abandon the accommodationist chiefs and to join the resistance at Prophetstown.[30]

In August 1810, Tecumseh led 400 armed warriors to confront Governor Harrison in Vincennes. Tecumseh demanded that Harrison nullify the Fort Wayne treaty, threatening to kill the chiefs who had signed it.[31] Harrison refused, stating that the Miami were the owners of the land and could sell it if they so chose.[32] Tecumseh left peacefully, but warned Harrison that he would seek an alliance with the British unless the treaty was nullified.[33]

 Comet_of_1811
The Great Comet of 1811, as drawn by William Henry Smyth

In March the Great Comet of 1811 appeared. During the next year, tensions between American colonists and Native Americans rose quickly. Four settlers were murdered on the Missouri River and, in another incident, natives seized a boatload of supplies from a group of traders. Harrison summoned Tecumseh to Vincennes to explain the actions of his allies.[33] In August 1811, the two leaders met, with Tecumseh assuring Harrison that the Shawnee intended to remain at peace with the United States.

Afterward Tecumseh traveled to the Southeast on a mission to recruit allies against the United States among the “Five Civilized Tribes.” His name Tekoomsē meant “Shooting Star” or “Panther Across The Sky.”[34] He told the Choctaw, Chickasaw, Muscogee, and many others that the comet of March 1811 had signaled his coming. He also said that the people would see a sign proving that the Great Spirit had sent him.

While Tecumseh was traveling, both sides readied for the Battle of Tippecanoe. Harrison assembled a small force of army regulars and militia in preparation to combat the Native forces.[35] On November 6, 1811, Harrison led this army of about 1,000 men to Prophetstown, Indiana, hoping to disperse Tecumseh’s confederacy.[36] Early next morning, forces under The Prophet prematurely attacked Harrison’s army at the Tippecanoe River near the Wabash. Though outnumbered, Harrison repulsed the attack, forcing the Natives to retreat and abandon Prophetstown. Harrison’s men burned the village and returned home.[37] This was the end of Tecumseh’s dream of a united native alliance against the whites.

On December 11, 1811, the New Madrid earthquake shook the Muscogee lands and the Midwest. While the interpretation of this event varied from tribe to tribe, they agreed that the powerful earthquake had to have meant something. The earthquake and its aftershocks helped the Tecumseh resistance movement as the Muscogee and other Native American tribes believed it was a sign that the Shawnee must be supported and that this was the sign Tecumseh had prophesied.

 New_Madrid_Erdbeben
The New Madrid earthquake was interpreted by the Muscogee as a reason to support the Shawnee resistance.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shawnee

Piqua Shawnee

www.piquashawnee.com

 

Pontiac’s Rebellion

Pontiac’s Rebellion

Pontiac’s Rebellion Summary and Definition: Pontiac’s Rebellion, aka the Pontiac War (1763 – 1766), broke out in the Ohio River Valley. Chief Pontiac (1720-1769) was a powerful and respected head chief of the Ottawa, Chippewa and Potawatomi. Chief Pontiac led a rebellion of a number of tribes against the British and the colonists. Pontiac’s Rebellion followed the defeat of the French in the French Indian War (1754-1763) and the conclusion of the series of conflicts referred to as the French and Indian Wars. Many of the Native American Indians, primarily in the Great Lakes region, had close trading relationships with France and were appalled to find that the lands were now under the control of the British. Pontiac’s Rebellion was an attempt by an alliance of some Native American Indian tribes to prevent Great Britain from occupying the land previously claimed by France. Pontiac’s War failed but the rebellion hastened the implementation of the Royal Proclamation of 1763 establishing a massive boundary called the Proclamation Line. The Proclamation of 1763 was designed to calm the fears of American Native Indians by halting the westward expansion by colonists whilst expanding the lucrative fur trade.

Names of Native American tribes in Pontiac’s Rebellion
The names of the tribes who supported Chief Pontiac’s rebellion were:

The tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy were British allies and did not want to become involved with Pontiac’s War. However, many of the Seneca tribe decided to join the rebellion.

Pontiac’s Rebellion: Map of the region called ‘Pays d’en haut’

Pontiac’s Rebellion – Pays d’en haut
The Native Indian tribes involved in Pontiac’s Rebellion lived within an area controlled by New France before their defeat in the French Indian War known as the ‘Pays d’en haut’  meaning the upper country.

Read More:

Visit the Official Website of the Piqua Shawnee

 

Piqua Shawnee

Piqua Shawnee

From Bhamwiki

 

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Bhamwiki has more than twelve thousand individual entries to explore. Peruse some of the featured articles, or newest entries. Look at what happened on this date in Birmingham’s history. Take a chance by clicking on “random page” to the left. Or, if you know what you’re looking for, try using the search box, or you can even start at the top and work your way down.

 

The Piqua Shawnee (officially the Picqua Sept of Ohio Shawnee) is one of nine indigenous tribes recognized by the Alabama Indian Affairs Commission. Evidence for Shawnee settlement in present-day Alabama dates to the late 17th century.

The Shawnee tribe was centered in the area of present day Indiana and Ohio. The Picqua or Peckuwe Sept was one of five tribal divisions named for a legendary evil man who was sent back from death to lead a group of Shawnee to walk in harmony with the great spirit. He appeared to the group in a cloud of smoke billowing from the coals of their fire. “Peckuwe” means “man who rises from the ashes.”

The tribe was forced twice to scatter, first by the Iroquis in the 1660s. Some settled in Alabama, where they lived among and were often grouped with other tribes as “Creeks” by traders in the territories. The Alabama Shawnee, unlike many of their tribesmen north of the Tennessee River, did not return to Ohio after peace was made. A new wave arrived in the late 18th and early 19th century, seeking refuge from the continuing fighting between French, English and American interests in King George’s War and the French and Indian War.

It was among the Shawnee that an outbreak of smallpox introduced by infected blankets from Fort Pitt during Pontiac’s rebellion took its greatest toll. Other tribes which had allied with the French in King George’s War had already been exposed to the disease. Smallpox spread with the Shawnee into Creek territory in the South, and then among the Chickasaw and Choctaw and to British colonists as well.

After the Creek Indian War most indigenous people were resettled in the Oklahoma territory, but many were able to avoid resettlement or later returned. The Picqua Sept now represents a small number of interrelated families that preserve Shawnee heritage and live scattered around the south, midwest and Canada. The tribe was officially recognized in Kentucky in 1991 and in Alabama in 2001.

Visit the Official Website of the Piqua Shawnee Tribe

www.piquashawnee.com

What are some traditional Shawnee Indian food recipes?

What are some traditional Shawnee Indian food recipes?

Shawnee cakes and three sisters soup are some traditional recipes from the Shawnee Indians. Variations of these recipes were used by Native American tribes throughout North America and were also adapted by European settlers.

The exact origin of Shawnee cakes is unknown, but some historians believe the dish originally belonged to the Shawnee people. These simple fried corn cakes, also known as Johnny cakes and hoe cakes, are still widely consumed, particularly in the southeast and New England. One cup of cornmeal, 1 1/2 cups of boiling water and a pinch of salt are the basic ingredients, although some modern recipes substitute 1/2 cup of milk. Fry spoonfuls of the batter in a heavy skillet until crisp and golden brown on both sides.

Like many Native American tribes, the Shawnees depended on farming as an essential part of their food supply. Corn, beans and squash, or the three sisters, were a significant part of their cuisine and their culture. Combine 2 cups of canned hominy, 2 cups of trimmed green beans, 2 cups of cubed butternut squash and 1 1/2 cups of diced potatoes in a large stock pot with 5 cups of water and 1 1/2 tablespoons of chicken bouillon granules. Bring the mixture to a boil, and then simmer on low heat for 10 minutes. Stir 2 tablespoons of melted butter into 2 tablespoons of flour, add it to the soup, and cook over medium heat for five minutes.

Sources:

whatscookingamerica.net

allrecipes.com

nativetech.org

Visit the Official Website of the Piqua Shawnee

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The Treaty of Fort Wayne (1809)

The Treaty of Fort Wayne (1809)

Tecumseh’s War

The two principal adversaries in the conflict, chief Tecumseh and American politician William Henry Harrison, had both been junior participants in the Battle of Fallen Timbers at the close of the Northwest Indian Wars in 1794. Tecumseh was not among the Native American signers of the Treaty of Greenville, which had ended the war, when the Shawnee and other Native Americans ceded much of their historic territory in present-day Ohio to the United States. However, many Indian leaders in the region accepted the Greenville terms, and for the next ten years pan-tribal resistance to American hegemony faded.

The Treaty of Fort Wayne, sometimes called the Ten O’clock Line Treaty or the Twelve Mile Line Treaty, is an 1809 treaty that obtained 3,000,000 acres (approximately 12,000 km²) of American Indian land for the white settlers of Illinois and Indiana. The tribes involved were the Delaware, Eel River, Miami tribe, and Potawatomi in the initial negotiations; later Kickapoo and the Wea, who were the primary inhabitants of the region being sold. The negotiations did not include the Shawnee who were minor inhabitants of the area purchased and had been asked to leave the area previously by Miami War Chief Little Turtle. Territorial Governor William Henry Harrison negotiated the treaty with the tribes. The treaty led to a war with the United States began by Shawnee leader Tecumseh and other dissenting tribesmen in what came to be called “Tecumseh’s War“.

Tecumseh was outraged by the Treaty of Fort Wayne, believing that American Indian land was owned in common by all tribes, an idea advocated in previous years by the Shawnee leader Blue Jacket and the Mohawk leader Joseph Brant.[30] In response, Tecumseh began to expand on the teachings of his brother, known as The Prophet, who called for the tribes to return to their ancestral ways. He began to associate the teachings with the idea of a pan-tribal alliance. Tecumseh traveled widely, urging warriors to abandon the accommodationist chiefs and to join the resistance at Prophetstown.[30]

Negotiations

The treaty also has two nicknames, the “Ten O’clock Line Treaty of 1809” and the “Twelve Mile Line Treaty”. The first nickname comes from tradition that says the Native Americans did not trust the surveyors’ equipment, so a spear was thrown down at ten o’clock and the shadow became the treaty line. There are other myths that say it was either a tree or a fence that was used. The Twelve Mile Line was a reference to the Greenville Treaty and the establishment of a new ‘line’ parallel to it but twelve miles further west.

In 1809 Harrison began to push for a treaty to open more land for settlement. The Miami, Wea, and Kickapoo were “vehemently” opposed to selling any more land around the Wabash River.[1] In order to influence those groups to sell the land, Harrison decided, against the wishes of President James Madison, to first conclude a treaty with the tribes willing to sell and use them to help influence those who held out. In September 1809 he invited the Pottawatomie, Lenape, Eel Rivers, and the Miami to a meeting in Fort Wayne. In the negotiations Harrison promised large subsidies and payments to the tribes if they would cede the lands he was asking for.[2]

 

Only the Miami opposed the treaty. They presented their copy of the Treaty of Greenville and read the section that guaranteed their possession of the lands around the Wabash River. They then explained the history of the region and how they had invited the Wea and other tribes to settle in their territory as friends. The Miami were concerned the Wea leaders were not present, although they were the primary inhabitants of the land being sold. The Miami also wanted any new land sales to be paid for by the acre, and not by the tract. Harrison agreed to make the treaty’s acceptance contingent on approval by the Wea and other tribes in the territory being purchased, but he refused to purchase land by the acre. He countered that it was better for the tribes to sell the land in tracts so as to prevent the Americans from only purchasing their best lands by the acre and leaving them only poor land to live on.[2]

After two weeks of negotiating, the Pottawatomie leaders convinced the Miami to accept the treaty as reciprocity to the Pottawatomie who had earlier accepted treaties less advantageous to them at the request of the Miami. Finally the Treaty of Fort Wayne was signed on September 29, 1809, selling United States over 3,000,000 acres (approximately 12,000 km²), chiefly along the Wabash River north of Vincennes.[2] During the winter months, Harrison was able to obtain the acceptance of the Wea by offering them a large subsidy and the help of Miami Chief Pacanne who helped to influence the Wea leaders. The Kickapoo were closely allied with the Shawnee at Prophetstown and Harrison feared they would be difficult to sway. He offered the Wea an increased subsidy if the Kickapoo would also accept the treaty, causing the Wea to pressure the Kickapoo leaders to accept. By the spring of 1810 Harrison had completed negotiations and the treaty was finalized.[3]

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Shawnee Traditions By C.C. Trowbridge

Shownese Traditions. C. C. TROWBRIDGE, Edited by VERNON KLNIETZ and ERMINIE W. VOEGELIN. (Occasional Contributions from the Museum of Anthropology of the University of Michigan, No. 9, 71 pp. Ann Arbor, 1939.)

Excerpt:

This volume is the second to be published of the early nineteenth century manuscripts of C. C. Trowbridge on the ethnology of the tribes of the old Northwest.’ Trowbridge as the secretary of Governor Lewis Cass, for whom he collected information on the manners and traditions of the natives of the Great Lakes and the Ohio Valley. The accounts of the Shawnee are two in number, the originals having only recently been found in the possession of Trowbridge’s Grandson, Mr Sydney Trowbridge Miller of Detroit. One account was taken down in July 1824 at an interview near Detroit with the notable Shawnee, the Prophet; the other and shorter account being written in 1825 at the Shawnee Reservation at Wapakoneta, Ohio, from the mouth of the aged chief, Black Hoof.

The text is a faithful verbatim copy of the manuscript. This publication contains a wealth of very valuable ethnological information and much historical data of importance. It is excellently edited, here being an appropriate introduction by Dr Erminie Voegelin, and the book is adequately annotated with illuminating footnotes, marked for their ethnological and historical accuracy. The authoritative weight of the book is augmented by the fact the Shawnee informants were among the best obtainable. The Prophet wa? the brother of the famous Shawnee leader, Tecumseh, and himself a shaman with the sanction of supernatural revelations, and the pre-eminent champion and exponent of cultural conservatism among the tribes of the then Northwest. Both belonged to the KiSpoko division of the Shawnee. The other informant, Black Hoof, then in his nineties, was a prominent Shawnee warrior and chief, probably belonging to the Oawikila division. Brief mention should be made of some of the more salient features of the volume. Elderly matrons or “peace women” could appeal to the war chiefs to stop warfare and prevent the unnecessary effusion of blood (p. 12), a trait also found in more or less modified form among the Delaware, Iroquois and Penobscot. There is a most impressive complete list of the thirty-four patrilineal sibs or gentes of the Shawnee tribe (pp. 16-17), many of which were at that time extinct (1824). Nine of these are to be found in Lewis H. Morgan’s list of Shawnee gentes collected in 1860 in Kansas. The Shawnee can be viewed as an enclave of Central Algonkian patrilineal descent persisting in an area dominated by mother-right in the form of the southern and eastern tribes among whom they wandered and lived so long. Some specific functions of the gentes are mentioned. The war chief was always a member of the Panther gens; and warriors of the Panther gens always followed at the rear of the party in returning from the warpath, while warriors of the Wolf gens led at the head (p. 19). The guardians of the sacred fire were two men, one of the Panther gens and one of the Turtle gens, one belonging to the CalakaaOa (Chillicothe) and one to the Mekore division (p.56). The sacred fire complex is a Characteristic Southeastern cultural trait which the Shawnee probably adopted during their long period of southern residence. Pyrolatry reached its fullest development among the Creek, Natchez and Taensa, but undoubtedly extended to other groups in more or less attenuated form. A Shawnee version of the primeval deluge or Earth-diver tale is given (p. 60) in which the crawfish is the animal agent, which is in agreement with the Southeastern and Gulf tribes (Creek, Yuchi, etc.), in contrast to most Central Algonkian tribes who have the muskrat as the animal helper. Of considerable interest is the cannibal or anthropophagic society of the Shawnee which is found also among the Miami and Kickapoo. Male and female members of the society were admitted by hereditary descent, and all belonged to the Pekowi (Piqua) division of Shawnee. The heads of the society were four women who claimed all the prisoners of war they could seize, the unfortunates subsequently being burned alive and eaten by the society (pp. 53-4, p. 64). The Shawnee make offerings of tobacco to their grandfathers, the snakes, upon their appearance every spring (pp. 42,48) in contradistinction to the practice of other Algonkian tribes. The Penobscot, Delaware, Sauk and Fox, all make offerings to their grandfathers, the Thunderers, when a storm approaches by casting tobacco in the fire, the Thunderers being the traditional enemies of all serpents and water monsters.

However, the Fox are on record for making offerings of tobacco to both serpents and Thunderers. It is a matter of note that in tabulating the cultural elements of a society, negative findings are equally important. Some specific denials for the Shawnee are found in the absence of wampum commemorative and record belts (p. 9), the lack of an organized medicine society such as occurred among the Ojibwa and Iroquois (p. 38), and the absence of transvestism (p.65), which is reported to have been present among the Delaware, Miami, and Potawatomi, and is known in the Southwest among the Navaho, Zuni, etc. No doubt this book will serve to fill many lacunae when the final detailed portrayal of Shawnee ethnology is presented by Drs Charles and Erminie Voegelin. Criticism is uncalled for, beyond stating that an index would have enhanced the usefulness of the volume.

MERION, PENNSYLVANIA FRANK T, SIEBERT, JR

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Piqua Shawnee

 

Shawnee Ceremonial Dance: Fall Bread Dance

Shawnee Ceremonial Dance: Fall Bread Dance

 

As with other Indian Nations, Shawnee ritual was expressed most publicly in their dances.  The Shawnee ritual year opened with the Spring Bread Dance and closed with the Fall Bread Dance.  Some Shawnee groups had a Green Corn Dance, but it was not the beginning of the ritual year as in other northeastern or southeastern woodland groups. It was rather related to the first ripening of the corn in early summer.  In keeping with its basic subsistence pattern of hunting and gathering, the Shawnee moons were related to this aspect of their annual cycle rather than to planting, weeding and harvesting of the maize crop.

Sources:

Erminie-Wheeler Voegelin with a cover letter letter to Frank Speck, signed by Carl and Erminie Voegelin.  572.97 Sp3 in the Frank G. Speck Papers, APS III. Northeast, E.  Miscellaneous Tribes, 2. Shawnee, c. Shawnee Dances (Freeman Guide, 3649).  CFV undoubtedly did the eliciting of the terms and EWV the ethnological descriptions.  The cover letter is dated July 15, 1934 at 332 Kickapoo St., Shawnee, Oklahoma.

Invaluable as well are dances listed by Lewis Henry Morgon during his fieldwork in Kansas among the Shawnee in 1859-60.  His source was Blue Jacket. The Shawnee Prophet, in Shawnee Traditions by Trowbridge (1824) lists some dances as well. In the discussion of Shawnee ritual, James H. Howard’s contributions to Shawnee Ceremonies, in Shawnee!, will be fully utilized.

Fall Bread Dance:

Tak’wanekaawe

Prophet: Tuhkoakaawaa “is a dance performed by women. It is danced for amusement only.  This peculiarity and the custom of the women to  join the man in singing are its only characteristics. The dancers form a line, fronting the man who sings, and they join him in singing a kind of prelude, which continues some minutes, when they commence, the man singing alone, and dance around in a circular manner.”

Erminie-Wheeler Voegelin “Season for all dances closes with this, a night dance of amusement following the same evening of the Bread Dance and being the last such until the next spring. A night dance follows immediately after dark on the same day that the Bread Dance is danced; this closes the season for night dances of amusement.  No dances given after that until the Spring Bread Dance.”
Learn more and view the full collection of Frank Gouldsmith Speck Papers and Background:

http://amphilsoc.org/collections/view?docId=ead/Mss.Ms.Coll.126-ead.xml 
http://amphilsoc.org/collections/view?docId=ead/Mss.Ms.Coll.126-ead.xml#d66274198e10681583665152 

Piqua Shawnee

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The Battle of Piqua

Battle of Piqua

George Rogers Clark

Throughout the American Revolution, Shawnee warriors conducted raids against American settlements in Kentucky. In the summer of 1780, George Rogers Clark, hoping to prevent further attacks, led 1,050 men against the Shawnee living in the Miami River Valley. Among Clark’s soldiers was frontiersman Daniel Boone. The Americans crossed the Ohio River at what is now modern-day Cincinnati. The army burned five Shawnee villages, including Old Chillicothe, along the Little Miami River. The Americans also burned Loramie’s Store, a British trading post, in what is now Shelby County, Ohio. The Shawnees generally fell back before Clark’s army, but a major encounter between the two sides occurred on August 8, 1780, near what is now Springfield, Ohio. Known as the Battle of Piqua, both sides suffered significant casualties. Clark’s attack, successful as far as it went, did not reduce the tensions between the Americans and the American Indians of the Ohio Country.

http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/w/Battle_of_Piqua

Piqua Shawnee

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